Lo! some we loved, the loveliest and best
That Time and Fate of all their Vintage prest,
Have drunk their Cup a Round or two before,
And one by one crept silently to Rest.

SUFISM

Sufism - one of five major classical Arab-Islamic philosophy, which issued after the others. Gets the mature form in the writings Muḥyi al-Din Ibn Arabi (1165-1240). Sufism as a philosophical current rethinking of the main approaches to solving the central problems of classical Arab-Islamic philosophy, using the experience of mystical revelation. In a broader sense Sufism (taṣavvuf) is the mystical branch of Islam. The term "Sufi" derives perhaps from ṣuf - "wool" as sackcloth of hair produced ascetics, although it is not the only hypothesis about its etymology. Sufism originated in the 8th century. Mystical experience is beginning to receive theoretical understanding by al-al-Ḥasana Baṣri, Zu-n-Nun al-Miṣri (8-9.), Al-Kharrazi (d. 899), trace the philosophical ideas of Abu Yazid al-Biṣtami ( mind. 875), Abu Manṣura al-Hallaj (d. 922), Abu al-al-Ḳasima Ḳushayri (986-1072), etc.

One in Two first principles and a number of things. Innovation philosophy of Sufism, while the essence of the concept of the school related to the fundamental change of ideas, serves as a guiding principle in thinking about the question of the relation of the first principle of things to the things of eternity to time, issues of causality, etc.  Regardless of variations in the development of the question of the relation of the first elements to the existing things from him, in Kalam, Arabic peripatetism, Ismailism and ishrakizme first principle is understood as fundamentally vnepolozhennoe row, which gives rise to. The same is given and absolute linearity in force in a consideration of how the existence of things, causality and knowledge. The concept of "closeness" (ḳurb) and "distance" (Bud) have so axiological loading and have explanatory power in previous philosophies of Sufism: The proximity to the initial means bólshee unity bólshee perfection ranked higher causality, a greater degree of knowledge, the main thing is, that unambiguous determination of the degree of approximation to the original stuff is always at least logically possible. It is this first principle vnepolozhennost the generated number and is being questioned in Sufism, and with it is the rejection of the concept of absolute linearity and, as a consequence, the possibility of fixing the unique things in place a number specified by the original.

Instead of first principles, and it generates a number of things are understood as conditions of each other. This mutual conditionality is not the same as the number of things is a logical condition of the atoms, while it itself is the condition for a number of things for its existence. This is the most distinct expression differences between a number and its original conceptualized terminology "selfhood necessary existence" (see if): the existence of the atoms due to himself, as opposed to other things. However, characteristic of the atoms as the beginning of things requires the inclusion of the latter in the first term. This does not mean that the original is attributed to "need" (ḥadzha) or things that can be attributed to "lack of need" (g̣inan): these concepts associated with the tradition of thinking about things like "possible" (see Features) remain valid in the Sufism. However, if the relationship between the original and the number of things is described in terms of "clear-hidden" (see Explicit) or "base-branch" (see ̒Aṣl), linearity gives way to mutual precedence: the first principle, and derivative works of the things can be characterized by mutual respect and as clear and as hidden, and as a base, and as a branch. Own terminology Sufism, who calls the first principle "Truth" (al-ḥaḳḳ), a number of things in the world "creation" (al-halḳ), and their bi-unity "world order" (al-amr), emphasizes this relationship, calling the latter "Truth-Creation" . If the concept of "precedence" and "following" play classical Arab-Islamic philosophical thought a vital role in the sequencing of the relationship of things, here they lose their ranking fixed and instead acquire the property into each other and, in fact, necessarily presupposes the other as his own characteristics: prior can not be preceded by not being at the same time and then, and vice versa.

ETERNITY AND TIME. First principle is traditionally understood as eternal, whereas a number of things that make up the world - as temporary. Change in the relationship between the original and the world so mean and redefining the relationship between eternity and time. Even in eternity Kalam was conceived as the previous course of time (see eternity), and, although the Arabic-speaking peripatetism proposed several different understanding of eternity, she remained standing fundamentally out of time, which is reflected, in particular, in the classification of actions in accordance with their attitude to eternity and time (see Time). In Sufism, which restored the atomic concept of time, created Mutakallims, eternity and time are in Two: each atom of time is the instantaneous fixation of eternity. Because in any moment sopolagayutsya two events, the destruction and the emergence of the world of things in every moment back in eternity and in the same moment as the time arises. Time is not just a co-eternal eternity, but the condition and shape of its implementation.

One in Two first principles and a number of things expressed in the terminology associated with the doctrine of assertion and existence. For this it is necessary to rethink the relationship between unity and multiplicity. Characteristic of the Arab-Islamic theoretical and philosophical thought as a simple understanding of the unity (see Unity) is not satisfactory and gives way though terminologically not issued, but still reasonable in philosophical texts of the Sufi concept of virtual discernment unity, which, being devoid of real domestic differences (and in this sense, being a simple unity) has multiplicity vnepolozhennoy he really discriminated things as "correlated" (nisba) or "conjugate" (iḍāfa) with you. As the first principle and a number of things the two-track, and the unity and multiplicity are bi-unity because these are internal relatedness relatedness unity lacking real existence, and therefore referred to as "non-existent correlating" (nisab adamiyya). They further and make those "meanings" (see sense) that correspond to things in the real, temporal existence of the latter. Since the correlation nebytiyny, they have no real differences between them and therefore represent a kind of continuum, where each point moves in any other, that among other things is a revision and principled position of the traditional theory of guidance on the meaning of the one-to-one correspondence between an object and its meaning and in this regard, and from this point of view - the revision of the category of "truth" from that of a stable fixation of the relationship between meaning and the thing or vygovorennostyu (see Truth) to understand it as implying, along with a fixed ratio and the inclusion of virtually any meaning because they are not distinguished from each data, and this is connected with the revision of the idea of ​​"self" (see Knowledge) in Sufism, and his typical strategy for attaining knowledge.

This is the reason also the understanding of universals in Sufism. Every thing is a double unity vechnostnogo and temporal existence. In a first aspect of its meaning, without really distinguishing them from other definitions are therefore the "absolute" (muṭlaḳ), and in the second, exactly matching the given thing, are "bound" (muḳayyad): the first, reasonable total, corresponds exactly second, single and endowed aktsidentalnymi signs, and one can not be present without the other, in what appears characteristic of classical Arab-Islamic thought moderate realism (see Universals, Attribute).

The concept of "approval" reinterpreted in Sufism in the direction of its approach to the concept of "non-existence". In addition, if the Kalam and Ismailism assertion associated with the "onostyu" things , in Sufism is associated also with its "embodiment." The concept of "approved by the Incarnation" (ayn Sabit) mean a thing in a state of non-existence of it, but not fixed in its separation from other things, but rather in its neotvlechennosti on the continuum "senses", which is the self of the first principle, or the existence of side vechnostnaya . However, the "approved embodiment" appears in the time being as it is, this thing is in its "certainty" (taayyun), a process called in Sufism "manifestation." Every thing, thus, is a bi-unity of time and vechnostnogo existence, both of these aspects are equally necessary and impossible without each other. To refer to the existence of temporary fixation ezhemgaovennoy World Quranic Sufism used the term "new creation" (halḳ jadid).

Causality. Such an understanding of the relationship between the two aspects of the existence of any thing calls for a radical revision of the concept of linear causality, which held sway in the classical Arab-Islamic philosophy from Kalam (see reason). In Sufism, the cause-and-effect relationships are localized within each atom of time, connecting vechnostnuyu and temporary incarnation of the same things and not go beyond any given point in time. It follows that, since the timing and vechnostny aspects of existence are aspects of the same things that correlate with each other as it is "clear" and "hidden", and both he and the other aspect to consider is acceptable and how to clear, and as a hidden, the categories cause and effect can not be clearly assigned for no one nor the other. Although Ibn Arabi holds widespread and goes back perhaps to the Stoics separation of acting on the world order and undergoes, linking the first to the divine self, and the second with the world, he nevertheless argues that the impact force belongs to the "non-existent" (madum, see things), that is, in his terminology, "approved embodiment", which manifests itself as a thing of the world, thus becoming undergoing. These two seem contradictory thesis actually express bi-unity of the atoms and the number of things vechnostnogo and temporal existence, in which each member of the pair is considered as a form of existence of the other. The same applies to the description of the relationship of the atoms in a row things. If the Kalam is understood as a willful, and Arabic-speaking peripatetism who adopted the Neoplatonic concept of emanation, will deny the first principle , in Sufism, on the one hand, the situation is restored Mutakallims first principle of the endowment will, knowledge and power in respect of things and on the other - and the term is used emanation (file) to describe the same relationship. These are, again, not of indiscriminate eclecticism and the contradictory, and that the fundamental position of Sufism, which can be expressed as a bi-unity of opposites: the will of the first principle implies its lack of will (ie vesting activity of its consequences) as a proper condition. A foundation philosophy of Sufism obessmyslivaet features based on the concept of the unique fixation of certain theses in the philosophies, such as "pantheism", "Neoplatonism", etc., are often used to describe the Sufi thought and not giving her a look at the main philosophy positing the opposite thesis as a necessary condition of this.

Method of knowledge. One in Two opposites in question in Sufism, is a characteristic of the fullness of truth and does not involve having to remove some kind of antithesis to synthesis. Complete comprehension of this truth is the goal and at the same content of the method of knowledge, which is called "confusion" (ḥayra) and has nothing to do with the "embarrassment", which in ancient times was associated with an aporia. Opens the "bewilderment" double unity of opposites in the most general form can be expressed as a dialectic of affirmation and negation of the "otherness" (g̣ayriyya) things to each other. Their rankings or mutual "superiority" (tafāḍul, see Virtue), in the time of their existence removed vechnostnoy hypostasis, so every thing is different and and noninvariant with respect to any other. Although the "confused" knowledge is expressed discursively, it is directly connected with the act of direct cognition and in no way contrary to the truth of the latter. In this sense, the theory of knowledge of Sufism and its reliance on "confused" knowledge of philosophy can be seen as an attempt to bridge the gap between the immediate and discursive knowledge, tacitly recognized in the classical Arab-Islamic philosophy (see the proof).

Ethical teachings of Sufism is also influenced by a radical thesis in Two world order. Man, on the one hand, certain vechnostnoy side of existence, but on the other - he defines it, because, although the effects and corresponds to the "non-existent", ie incarnations of things that make sense continuum Truth nonexistent in exact accordance with the very same as a present thing. Inability to predetermine their own destiny is, thus, only another expression for the absolute autonomy of the person. The same applies to the determination of the true figure for the acts committed by the person, which is associated with the problems in a more lively debate Kalam (steps) and a man, and God is the equal right be called authentic deystvovatelyami, and these points of view, not just alternative, but as the conditions necessary to each other. This applies to the consideration of the relation between time and the parties vechnostnóy existence within a single atom of time. As for the two neighboring atoms even of time, not to mention the more distant, they are not related to the reasons that creates fundamental difficulties in the ethics. However, in Sufism perceived and developed many moral maxims, mitigating this "ethical nihilism" high philosophy. In addition, in practical Sufism, especially in his mature period associated with the design of various orders, were developed by a variety of practices to improve adept conducting his "ways" (ṭariḳa also Maslak) to higher degrees of knowledge. They are based on the idea of ​​the possibility of graded increments of excellence in targeted efforts adept, thus focusing on the process of improving, though they have little basis in fact philosophical system of Sufism, where the concept of the "perfect man" is more metaphysical than ethical.

Tolerance. A significant implication of Sufi philosophy is tolerance, expressed in the principle of "not to worship anything other than the true God." Since every thing in vechnostnóy side of their existence is noninvariant with respect to the truth, all the worship and adoration is essentially the truth. From this point of view, any religion is true, but on the express condition that no claim to the exclusive possession of the truth, thus suggesting other profession (including and excluding like him as "polytheism" excludes "monotheism") as its own terms. This thesis, the caller and callee are still extreme dislike of some Muslim ideologues-traditionalist appeal, coupled with the mystical element of Sufism, the modern Western consciousness, to a considerable extent due to the popularity of Sufi ideas of the modern West.

Philosophical Sufism after Ibn Arabi developed under its decisive influence. Ibn Arabi's views were later known as the concept of "unity of existence" (al-vaḥdat vudzhud), which has found supporters in the Sufi environment in the face of such great thinkers as al-Ḳashani (d. 1329) and al-Jili (1325-1428) , and met opposition from al-Simnani (d. 1336). Sufism had a great influence in the Arab-Muslim philosophical thought, especially in the late Middle Ages, as well as the culture at large. Most famous Sufi ideas were thanks to the creativity of poets and thinkers, as Farid al-Din al-Aṭṭar (d. 1220), Ibn al-Fariḍ (1181-1235), Jalal al-Din al-Rumi (1207-73) and others . anchored by Sufi symbolism of love, longing for the beloved, etc.

Naqshbandiya saints throughout Uzbekistan

  1.      Abdukhalikov Gijduvani (K.S.A)
  2.      Khoja Muhammad Ar Revgari ORIF (K.S.A)
  3.      Hodge Mahmoud Anzhir Fagnavy (K.S.A)
  4.      Ali Khoja Rometany (K.S.A)
  5.      Khoja Muhammad Boba Samos (K.S.A)
  6.      Said Hodge World Kulol (K.S.A)
  7.      Hazrati Bahouddin Naqshbandi (K.S.A)
  8.      Muhammad Darvesh (K.S.A)
  9.      Hodge Imkanagy (K.S.A)
  10.      Hdzha Ubaydullo Ahror Valius (K.S.A)
  11.      Kady Zohid Muhammad (K.S.A)