Lo! some we loved, the loveliest and best
That Time and Fate of all their Vintage prest,
Have drunk their Cup a Round or two before,
And one by one crept silently to Rest.

The conquest of Russia in Central Asia and the Far East

While the war ended in the Caucasus, Russia has had to take up arms even in another part of his Asian border.

Russian for a long time began to get in the Kirghiz steppes, lying to the east and north-east of the Caspian Sea. Even at the time of Peter the Great were built along the Irtysh building - Omsk and Semipalatinsk.

Then, in the reign of Anna Ivanovna part of Kyrgyzstan became subjects of Russia, but other Kyrgyz continued to attack our border ownership. They had to defend themselves from the device long defensive lines - from Orenburg to Omsk, Semipalatinsk and beyond. Only in the XIX century, in the reign of Alexander the Great, were the measures taken to a real subordination of Russian power all the Kyrgyz. In steppes, convenient places were built fortifications, which are based around the Russian settlements. Russian power gradually extended to all the vast space occupied now Ural, Turgay, Akmola and Semipalatinsk. In the reign of Nicholas I, our possessions pushed further south, deep into Central Asia. The structure of the Russian state has almost the entire current Semirechinskaya area where the already close proximity to China was a special time Semirechensky Cossack army.

Moving slowly to the south, the Russian finally become immediate neighbors Kokand Khan, has long feuded with us.

Kokand raids on the Russian border and the frequent looting of Russian trade caravans prompted Russian to take up arms to quell the brigands. In 1864 and 1865 a small Russian force led Chernyaeva, crashing into the middle of the Kokand possessions, stormed the main city of Turkestan Kokand and Tashkent. In the last one hundred thousand inhabitants and 30,000 troops, the city was surrounded by strong walls with total length of 24 miles and is armed with guns. Tashkent was taken by storm a small Russian detachment of two thousand men with 12 guns. This attack struck the entire Central Asia terror of the troops of the White King, as they called Asians Russian emperor.


The intervention of the Emir of Bukhara in our fight against Kokand khan prompted Russian military chiefs to transfer ownership of the war in Bukhara. Our troops led by General Kaufmann inflicted a decisive defeat on the Bukhara and Bukhara took several cities, including the holy city of Samarkand. Emir of Bukhara asked for peace, and the world in 1868, it was granted on the following conditions: all of the city of Bukhara, won by Russian weapons were for Russia, over the other possessions of the Emir of Bukhara also retained power, but must be to obey the Russian Tsar. In addition, the Emir pledged to free all the slaves and to stop trafficking. Even earlier, in the same conditions was concluded peace with the Khan of Kokand. From then conquered Kokand and Bukhara holdings formed the current field of the Syr Darya (the main city of Tashkent) and Samarkand. Lucky for us the war with Bukhara and advantageous peace with her and Kokand were the work of the indefatigable General Kaufman.

Many glorified soon after Russian arms valiant campaign to Khiva in 1873.

Khiva Khanate, small in size, from all sides was surrounded by dead sandy desert, which made Khiva inaccessible to enemy attack. In the loose sands of the desert once died of thirst and starvation on a whole army of Bukhara. Only themselves and Khivans born residents of the region - Turkmen - ran terrible desert on horseback or habitual camels. Raids and robberies Khivans and Turkmen forced, finally, to decide on a dangerous and arduous trek to one stroke subdue robber nest.

Four Russian squad number by 2 and 3000 people each, loaded with treasure on camels from different sides come to the desert surrounding the Khanate of Khiva. It is difficult to describe the hardships which they had to move to this brave campaign. Probably no European army would not have survived it. The sun beat down like fire burning the skin on the hands, face and neck. From the terrible heat was hard to breathe. Glowing through quicksand shoes burned feet in the sand sank guns and a detachment moved slowly forward. At times, a storm: in the clouds of sand billowing wind, could not see, the sand blinding and breathtaking. Supply of water, loaded on camels in furs, soon dried up, and the wells were rare - 50-60 miles from one another - and they were very deep. Pull a bucket of water took a long time for a long time and a company had to mark time at the well. Always had to go on top alert: Turkmen, amazing hands and riders szhivshiesya with this situation, its wild horses circled around all the time units, disturb their surprise attack. Every night a few times and the alarm woke up on his feet soldiers, giving them a rest after a busy junction.

Chief of the four groups, marching under General Kaufman, almost died completely, he was involved in the very heart of the sandy desert, where more than once died caravans, where even habitual Turkmens avoided bully. For dozens of miles around there was nothing but loose hot sand. Camels fell and okolevali dozens - all the way to the detachment was littered with corpses. The soldiers are exhausted. With the incredible difficulties, at the risk of the death squad, the Russian finally reached inhabited areas, dead desert was passed, started ahead of space, where there was already water and, because of it, vegetation, and were spread out settlements: detachment reached Khiva. With the same hardships and easy access to the destination and other three companies. Khivans, never saw the enemy troops on their soil, and considered themselves safe for sand, were struck with terror. Khiva army was about to meet the enemy, fled from a few cannon shots, and Russian triumphantly entered the capital of the Khanate of Khiva. Campaign was over.

Terrified Khan humbly accepted the conditions prescribed by him won, he gave Russia the entire right bank of the river. Amu-Darya and the surrounding Khiva earth, and he has pledged to ban their subjects nastrogo raids on Russian possessions, give free access to trade Russian merchants, forever abolished slavery in the state and prohibited trafficking, the Khanate of Khiva most recognized over them Russian protection.

Third Khanate - Kokand - because it took place in the civil wars and internal confusion was incorporated into the empire in 1876. Young general Skobelev already distinguished himself in the Khiva campaign, quickly silenced those of confusion and rebellion was quelled risen of Kokand against Russia. Of the Kokand Khanate was formed a new area - Ferghana.

A little later, our possessions in Central Asia more broadly drawn back towards the Turkmen steppes, which lies to the west of Bukhara and Khiva khanates until the Caspian Sea. In 1873 Russian seized the southern half of the eastern shore of the sea, there was built several fortifications, including Kras. Of these fortifications and decided to wage war against the Turkmen tribe - Akhal-Teke, were harassing our Central Asian possessions of their daring raids. In 1879, a campaign was undertaken in the Turkmen desert. But he was unsuccessful. Then the Emperor Alexander ordered next year bosses at General Skobelev new campaign, became famous in the war with the Turks, 1877-1878. Well acquainted with the local conditions, Skobelev made in advance all the necessary blanks for him. The war with the Turkmens was not easier and Khiva campaign, but Skobelev foresaw the difficulties and bravely went to meet them. In October 1880, the troops were Skobelev of Krasnovodsk, and in late November on the way connected with supporting the Russian detachment, who came from Turkestan, January 12, 1881 was taken by storm Geok-Tepe, where all power Ahaltekin. Turkmens resigned and asked to adopt them Russian citizenship. This occurred in the first months of the reign of Emperor Alexander III. Of Turkmen land and grassland, adjacent to the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, formed Trans-Caspian region (with its capital Ashkhabad).

Our five new Central Asian regions (Semirechinskaya, Syr-Darya, Fergana, Samarkand and Trans-Caspian) covered a vast area of ​​about one and a half million square miles.

Placement of Russian power in the region was beneficent for the most people associated areas. They was put firmly order instituted regular courts, schools, roads, population started to move into civilian life and become rich. For Russia, in turn, gains in Central Asia have been very valuable.

The fertility of the soil of Turkestan - purely fabulous. Even the barren, desert land are transformed into fertile fields when irrigating with water abstracted from rivers ditches. Such lands are a rich harvest of cotton, going for dressing cotton fabrics. Wealth Turkestan little more used, and yet figured out that water from the Syr Darya and Amu Darya can irrigate millions of acres of land. The Government is concerned about the expansion of irrigated area. Will be at an end when the planned works, the Central Asian possessions Russia will be a real bonanza.

In the reign of the first emperor of the Romanov dynasty large areas in eastern Siberia became part of the Russian state - the current Yenisei Province, Yakutsk region, and almost all of Irkutsk province. Under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Russian state already owned the entire coast of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk and the extreme north-east of Siberia up to the Bering Strait, which separates Asia from America. In the south of Russian Siberia at the same time moved over Lake Baikal and settled to the east of it, in those places, which now form the Trans-Baikal region. Soon then took a large Russian and the Kamchatka Peninsula.

From ancient times, the Russian population has to strive and to locations adjacent to the left bank. Amur. Final approval for Russia, this area (the present Amur region) only later, during the reign of Emperor Alexander II.

Even during the reign of Nicholas I the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia Ants laid near the mouth of the Amur fortified Nikolaevsk.

Emperor Alexander gave Muravyov enter into negotiations with China on the delineation of our possessions with the Chinese on the Amur. Sovereign thus found it necessary to adopt a Russian entire left bank of the Amur. Negotiations with the Chinese were slow. Ants then himself arrived in the Chinese city Aygun and persuaded the Chinese authorized to agree to all demands of Russia (8 May 1858). In addition, he obtained the consent of the Chinese people to the fact that henceforth the Ussuri region (on the Ussuri River, a right tributary of the Amur, to the Sea of ​​Japan) was the common property of Russia and China.

For services Muravyov emperor granted him the title of count and ordered to be called henceforth Muravyov-Amur.

The Chinese government did not immediately approved Aigun contract. Only in 1860, after China's Count Ignatiev has made its approval. Ignatieff has achieved and more. Ussuri region was ceded to Russia at all. This latest acquisition was very important because it gave Russia a long coastline of Japan Sea. At the southern end of the coastal strip was soon laid an important military and trade relations Vladivostok. Of newly acquired possessions to the Sea of ​​Japan, with the accession to the Okhotsk Sea coast, was founded a new area - Maritime.

Thus the reign of Emperor Alexander II, Russia has become a firm foothold on the shores of the Pacific Ocean. To protect the southern Siberian border along the long security line was arranged Cossack, Cossack troops were new - Siberian, Trans-Baikal, Amur, Ussuri. All of these valiant troops were in Siberia and are a great service to the Fatherland.