Lo! some we loved, the loveliest and best
That Time and Fate of all their Vintage prest,
Have drunk their Cup a Round or two before,
And one by one crept silently to Rest.

The document on the history of Turkmen archive khans of Khiva

In Daftare № 49 archive khans of Khiva per liter. 119a-120a is a list (see photo), which PP Ivanov did not mention in his description of the archive 1.

Translation: "The list of people from the Teke tribe, which in 1282 (1865/66) [year relevant], the cows were assigned ameldarami 2 and got labels.

[Department] Tokhtamysh [branch] Beck. Rhode Gökçen 3: Devlet Nazar-back - 4 atalyk Berdy Hodge-Bey - beglerbegi; Tagan Batyr - atalyk, Ai-Dogdy serdar - atalyk; Eid Nur serdar - atalyk; Beck Turda batyr - fermandzhi; Safar Mohammed Batyr - fermandzhi. [Branch] vekil. Race car: Kool-Holder Batyr - beglerbegi, Anna-Murad Bey - fermandzhi; Mohammed Anna Batyr - karaulbegi; Koch Coulee Batyr - karaulbegi. Rhode Yusuf: Hodge Holder Batyr - karaulbegi. [Branch] Beck, born Kungur: Shirek batyr - the world-ahur / l. 119a /. [Branch] vekil, race car: Dzhushi (?) Batyr - karaulbegi. [Branch] vekil, born bukry Anna Hassan Bek batyr (!) - Karaulbegi. Teke, [branch] vekil, [race] Karaca: Oraz Mourad - inactivated; Oraz Ali - onbegi.

[Department] otamysh, [branch] sychmaz: Klich Mourad - atalyk. [Rod] tashayak: Seyyid Bey - Mirabeau. [Branch] sychmaz: Khoja Mengli - inactivated. [Branch] Bakhshi: Mohammed Berdy - atalyk.

[Department] Tokhtamysh 5, [branch] bey 6: Subhan Berdy - chure-Akashi. [Branch] Beck, born Kungur 7: Anna Cooley - karaulbegi / l. 119b /. [Branch] vekil: Soyunich batyr - Naib, Tachi-Mohammed - darga / l. 120a / ".

A list is a "registry shortcuts" (of 25 tags) issued Turkmens. The list gives the impression of an unfinished: the l. 120a is not the total, which is usually found in the documents of the archive in all kinds of lists.

In the analysis of the document should primarily focus on the meaning of certain terms available to him.

Ameldar word generally means in Khiva, as in other regions of Central Asia, "officer", "officer". In the XIX century., As is evident from the documents archive ameldar term used in relation to any public official, regardless of the [170] rank. Assign ameldarom was handed over Khan's label, clothing, and various honorary gifts. This procedure in the XIX century. was approximately the same in all the Central Asian states 8.

Awarding of Khiva marshals Turkmen officials have information in the published narrative sources. Thus, in 1805 Yomut Koushut-Serdar was given the rank of parvanachi 9. In 1826, several Merv Salorio were granted ranks inaka, parvanachi, atalyk, mehrema and world-Ahura 10. In Khiva chronicles mention some other ranks (Khiva and Bukhara), who were the leaders of Turkmenistan: parvanachi, toksaba, world-Ahura, beglerbegi, eshik-Agasi, Dadkhah, karaulbegi 11. The documents found in the archive as a number of Turkmen officials Khiva and Bukhara Origin: inactivated, Dargo, chure-Akashi, karaulbegi, Mehr 12.

It is unknown what functions associated with a particular rank, because not yet discovered the true Khiva and Bukhara labels about granting Turkmen above ranks. It is doubtful that at this time the Turkmen officials to obtain combined with holding a certain position in the khan's administration, most likely, it was just honorific titles. Uzbeks in Khiva, as in the Khanate of Bukhara 13 ameldarov a majority of the XIX century. already had certain duties. This should include, obviously, and the Turkmens, in any case, such ranks as inactivated, Mirabeau 14, world-Ahura, chure-Akashi, beglerbegi, could not have the Turkmens of the importance that they have in the Khiva Khanate in XVII- XVIII and XIX centuries, even. True, some of the other grades, referred to in the above-quoted document, it can not be said quite confidently, but the Turkmen and the high dignitaries difficult to link any specific function.

Naib in the Khiva Khanate in the XIX century. called, according to some sources, the rulers of the cities, and at the end of XIX century. - The rulers of several areas in the districts (naibstvah) and Besh-ditch Kyat-Kungrad 15. Viceroys khans of Khiva in the areas of South Turkmenistan (Merv, Akhal) also called Naib. However, in all cases known to us naib in Turkmen lands were Uzbek dignitaries.

The value of the rank darga in Khiva Khanate (archive mentioned darga and Dargo-Bey) is also not clear. The exact definition of the functions Dargie unknown; darga Bey, in particular, was in charge of collecting the money tax (salguta). Sometimes this rank was the ruler of the city or region 16. According to Mr. L. Kuhn, "Darga - just like Mirabeau, an honorary title at the court itself is called by that name containing the crossing on the Amu-Darya" 17.

Did the rank karaulbegi Khiva Khanate in a certain position - is unknown, although one of the documents archive khans of Khiva is as if [171] in this order. In any case, the rank karaulbegi had some of the Turkmens, who were on guard duty 18 (patrol detachments are sent during major campaigns Khiva troops, as well as carrying the garrison, mainly on the borders khanate). But those karaulbegi, referred in the above document we, it can not be treated, as in 1865-1866 gg. in southern Turkmenia was Khiva garrisons.

Chin atalyk applied to higher ameldaram (from "32 ameldars" had four atalyk) in the XIX century. Apparently already lost touch with a certain position, but it remains one of the highest honorary title in the Khanate of Khiva, and in this sense is unlikely there could be employed in the above-quoted document. From the middle of the XIX century. atalyk the Karakalpaks, as you know, was called Khiva Khan appointed heads of the tribes. These chapters are subject to two tribes beglerbegi. However, the analogy with the Karakalpaks have to give up, because the Turkmen title atalyk cited sources in the first half of the XVIII century. 19. It should be noted that the title atalyk the Turkmen leaders, as can be seen from the documents archive of Khiva, often, that also does not allow to draw an analogy with the Uzbek atalyk.

The above basically confirms the assumption that the magnitude of Khiva, referred to in the above document we are, in this case, only the honorary title. This is also confirmed by the fact that the Turkmen themselves, apparently, did not use this titulature. So, mentioned in our document-Teke Oraz Murad inaka received title in 1865/66, further repeatedly appearing in the archive (in particular, in 1283/1867, he led a group of 19 Merv and Akhal "ameldarov" 20 ), but everywhere without the title.

When Khiva power associated with awarding the rank of the performance of certain official functions (control of one or another tribe or part of a tribe), they gave the Turkmen marshals labels on titles that existed among themselves Turkmen and, most of all, that these leaders were already 21. Thus the power of the leader of the authority was reinforced khan. A similar policy is applied and the khans of Khiva to the Karakalpak biys, when in some cases they were given labels "on biystvo" 22. In the second half of the XIX century. Turkmen tribes in the Khiva Khanate ruled myuhirdarami, ie the leaders who received from the Khan of Khiva printing (myuhir) and a label, which is usually confirmed by the title of the leader (Beck, vekil, Khan, etc.).

We know of no cases to Khorezm Turkmen leaders would Khiva ranks or titles. The above information of this kind are [172] only to southturkmen tribes: Teke, Salorio, Sarikaya 23. Khiva Khans distributed labels to the titles apparently only nominally dependent marshals or Khiva Turkmen tribes. In this case, obviously, you can not talk about "inclusion" of Turkmen leaders in Khiva state apparatus.

Were Turkmen leaders interested in this kind of labels? This question can be answered in the affirmative. The leader who has received for any services the honorary title of Khan of Khiva, could count on support from the latter to strengthen its hold over tribe, even if such a title in itself to any specific functions was not related and no real power did not give 24 . In addition, people who owned Khan's label and in general all kinds of evidence to complain, enjoy prestige among Turkmens 25.

Khiva rulers, awarding honorary titles Turkmen leaders sought to make the part of the Turkmen elite agents of influence in southern Turkmenistan. However, in the time after the defeat of Muhammad Amin Khan under Serakhs in 1855 and began Turkmen uprisings in Khiva, which lasted almost continuously for more than ten years, and the expansion of Khiva in southern Turkmenia was out of the question. At this time of Khiva khans were interested in that: a big as possible to attract the armed groups Turkomans, and other tribes Saryk South Turkmenistan to suppress the uprising Khorezm Turkmen. To this end, they gave all sorts of handouts nobility southturkmen tribes. In turn, the Teke, and sarykskaya salor know tried to lean on Khiva in fighting efforts in the late 50's and early 60's attacks Iranian feudal lords. Khiva remained the main market for slaves Iranians captured in any predatory Alamanov who organized the feudal nobility yuzhnoturkmenskih Turkomans and other tribes. Finally, know this, resulting in the Khiva Khanate-armed troops to suppress popular uprisings, were given cash awards and clothing. Thus, create a shared nexus between feudal lords and chieftains Khiva yuzhnoturkmenskih tribes.

This is evidenced, in particular, given us a list of shortcuts to honorary titles received leaders of the Turkomans in 1865/66 According to the Chronicle Agehi, latest uprising Yomut in Khiva Khanate in the 60-ies of the XIX century. began in the month of Rabi II 1283's. (July 1866), although minor disturbances were before. Apparently, Khiva authorities foresaw the inevitability of recourse against yomutskih "rebels" to Teke marshals why and tried to appease the advance of the latter, in particular, the distribution of honorary titles.

Comments

1 See PP Ivanov. Archive khans of Khiva XIX century. L., 1940, p 230.

2 The text of the erratum: *** instead of ***.

3 The term "department", "division" and "kind" are accepted conditionally, solely to distinguish between tribal units "first", "second" and "third" of the order. The text of these units have the same name: the Hulk.

4 Italics rank obtained by Turkomans labels.

5 The following further names, apparently assigned later.

6 When the words are more letters *** *** (?).

7 At first it was written: "Rod Gökçen," then the word "Gökçen" crossed out and above it says "Kungur".

8 See, for example, Mitt II, page 440; AA Semenov. Sketch of the central administrative apparatus of the Bukhara Khanate of a later time. Stalinabad, 1954, page 61.

9 MITT II, ​​page 372. Parvanachi - the same as fermandzhi.

10 MITT II, ​​page 440.

11 See MITT II, ​​pp. 189, 421, 422, 435, 440, 441, 462, 469, 505, 549, 551, 555, 565.

12 Archive of Khiva khans, Daftary, 98, l. 26 For, Daftary 21, l. 175a; Daftary 91, l. For; Daftary 46, l. 126, Daftary 26, l. 86a; Daftary 24, l. 646; Daftary 64, l. 546, Archives of the Institute of Oriental Studies, f. 33, op. 1, № 134, l. 4a.

13 See A. Semenov. Ordinance. cit., pp. 61, 64.

14 refers mirab as one of the highest court officials in the Khiva Khanate (including "32 ameldarov"), rather than the lower grade water administration.

15 Hirschfeld and Galkin. Military statistical description Khiva oasis, Part II, Tashkent, 1903, page 23.

16 See MITT II, ​​pp. 351, n. 1.

17 A. L. Kuhn. Sketch of the history of settlement Khiva ... Archive of the Institute of Oriental Studies, f. 33, op. 1, № 13, p. 41a.

18 See Archive khans of Khiva, Daftary 24, l. 86a. According to the editorial board of "Materials on the history of the Turkmen and Turkmenistan," karaulbegi - only Bukhara rank (MITT II, ​​pp. 421, approx. 4), it is refuted by the khans of Khiva archive materials and testimony AL Kuhn (see AL Kuhn. op. cit., p. 42a-42b).

19 For example, in 1740 Veknich (ie Bekench) atalyk and Niaz Mohammed-atalyk (Gladyshev Muravin. Trip from Orsk to Khiva and back ... St. Petersburg., 1851, page 21).

20 See the Archive of the Institute of Oriental Studies, f. 33, op. 1, № 134, l. 46.

21 See the "Protocols ... Transcaspian mug lovers of archeology and history of the East", Vol. 2. Ashgabat, 1916, page 9.

Raises the question of rank onbegi, the label on which was based on our list, Oraz Ali kind of Karaj. Onbegi the title in the late Middle Ages occurred in Central Asia only the Turkmens, there is also information about granting this title Turkmen rulers of neighboring states. It can hardly be expected that, in the title, in this case onbegi contacted some "official" function. Yet the very fact the award along with the higher ranks of the Turkmen Khiva rank as onbegi, as an honorary title.

22 pp Ivanov. Sketch of the history of the Karakalpaks. Sat "Materials on the history of the Karakalpak." Moscow-Leningrad, 1935, p 54.

23 The only exception - rite mehrema, appear in the document archive at two and one Yomut Karadashli.

24 Wed MN Galkina story of how Khan's grandson Kiat Anna Hassan Khan was looking forward to receiving the rank, who promised him the chief naval station Astrabad captain Likharev for murder "Rogue Balkhan" (MN Galkin. Ethnographic and Historical materials on Central Asia and the Orenburg Territory. SPb., 1869, page 84).

25 See, eg, MN Galkin. Ordinance. cit., page 86.